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ANMED Issue: 2005-3
Work at Ancient Olympos in 2004
B. Yelda Olcay UÇKAN - Yalçın MERGEN

The work at ancient Olympos was carried out from August 20th to September 15th in 2004 under the supervision of the Directorate of the Antalya Archaeological Museum. The team comprised Assc. Prof. Dr. B. Y. Olcay-Uçkan, Dr. E. Uçkan and Research Asst. M. Bursalı of Anadolu University, Y. Mergen of Dokuz Eylül University, Cartographer A. Nadir, restoration architect R. Yılmaz, architect E. Taneri, master’s students G. Öztaflkın and H. Yeşilova of Anadolu University, and undergraduate students A. Gümüşoğlu, G. Ergün, N. Kart, G. Işık and E. Aka of Anadolu University. We would like to extend our thanks to the Directorate General of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism for granting permission for our work and Anadolu University’s Research Fund and the Suna & İnan Kıraç Research Institute on Mediterranean Civilizations (AKMED) for their financial support.

The topographic work that was begun in previous years was completed, with the addition of the mapping of the newly discovered structures, and the cross-section work planned for the southern part of the site was initiated. The evaluation, inventory and protection work on the architectural and architectural sculpture remains that had been identified within the city continued. The inventory and organisation work at the excavation house, which was initiated in previous years continued.

I- Fieldwork
The field work at Olympos in the 2004 campaign can be grouped under the following three headings:

a- The Identification of Building Remains
 One of the main goals of the work at Olympos is to identify any presently unknown structures within and around the city, consequently those previously inaccessible parts of the “North” and the “South” Cities on the slopes were investigated and surveyed. Numerous terrace walls and many walls belonging to structures of an unclear function erected upon these terraces were identified. As we have not as yet begun our excavations, we are not able to provide a date for these structures based upon any small finds; however, from drawing analogies with materials and techniques, it can be inferred that these structures are of a similar date to the medieval ones erected within the boundaries of the city.

b- The Identification of the Architectural Sculpture
In addition to the material identified in preceding years, in 2004 new pieces of architectural sculpture were discovered concealed within the undergrowth. Some of the portable pieces of architectural sculpture that were exposed to erosion and in urgent need of protection were transported to the excavation house for their protection.

A group of noteworthy finds are the inscriptions that have been identified during our surveys. The construction and the repair inscriptions of the Roman baths in the south city have been discovered. Further, an inscription describing a church boundary, rare for churches or monastic complexes built within the city, was discovered. These materials were identified, inventoried and documented in situ.

 c- The Topographic Work
The aim of completing the initiated topographical work could not be realised in previous years because of the dense overgrowth and topography of the terrain. However, in 2004, this was finalised through including in the topographic map the Hellenistic city walls on the skirts of Musa Mountain, which forms the natural boundary of the city (Fig.

2). The topographic work was conducted in the following 5 areas:
a.1 - To prepare a topographic map of Olympos that would also show its connections with the contemporaneous related sites.
a.2 - Alongside the field work, the topographic map was supplemented by satellite images and the city layout was extrapolated onto this map forming a “topographic city map”.
a.3 - The recording of measurements to establish the profile and cross-section of the South City, located to the south of Olympos Creek (modern Akçay), on three different planes.
a.4 - To prepare the 3-D topographic map of the city.
a.5 - Finally to identify the sectors where the main building groups extend, based on the country coordinates, for the excavations to be conducted in the future, and to identify the necessary polygonal and grid point networks for a grid system of 200x200 and of 10x10 meters.

II- The Work in the Excavation House
 The topographic work was in part carried out in the excavation house and the data obtained was there transferred into the digital medium. 3-D restitution proposals were developed for some of the buildings based upon the data obtained in the field. The  inventory work on the terra cotta material and the architectural sculpture in the excavation house depot was continued. The storms and heavy rainfalls during January 2004 enabled us to otain important data in regard to the plan of the city, which opens into sea on the east. Rocks and sand that had accumulated over time were dragged away to a depth of 2 m and a regular pavement on the coast lay exposed (Fig. 3). This is likely to be the pavement of the piers, as the remains of the harbour are in this area (Fig. 4). The cleaning work to be carried out in the next campaign will clarify the function and connection of this area with the southern part of the city.

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